WASHINGTON, Nov. 14, 2018 —
Summary: Keeping the families of our missing as well as veterans informed is a primary objective of the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency's (DPAA) mission. This update is intended to provide an overview of efforts during the previous quarter to account for our missing.
The agenda includes:
Update on the Personnel Accounting Mission (Director Kelly McKeague)
Outreach and Communications (OC) Overview (OC Director, Todd Livick)
Partnerships and Innovations (PI) Update (PI Director, Dr. Tom Holland)
Operational Update (Deputy Director Operations RDML Kreitz, Dir Indo-Pac Colonel Brian Peterson/Dir Euro-Med Colonel Brian Pearl)
IDs/Disinterments (DPAA Lab Director, Dr. John Byrd)
AFMES-AFDIL Update: (Director DoD DNA Operations, Dr. Tim McMahon)
Update on the Personnel Accounting Mission (Director Kelly McKeague)
As with the rest of DoD, we’re very pleased to begin the new FY with a full appropriation, a first in 10 years. The Congress augmented our FY19 budget request of $131M with two adds: $10M for Vietnam War operations and $20M for Korean War operations. We are fortunate in the interest and support Members of Congress and their staffs have respectively shown and provided. These additional resources are key to enabling us to expand capacity and capability.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK)
The August 1st honorable carry ceremony of remains from the DPRK was a landmark event hosted by Vice President Pence. The 55 cases containing purported remains of U.S. service members have been undergoing forensic testing and analyses at both DPAA and the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System-Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFMES-AFDIL). Last month, DPAA identified two service members, U.S. Army PFC William Jones and U.S. Army MSG Charles McDaniel. These IDs were made relatively quickly because their dental remains and clavicles were among the remains. In regard to the recovery aspect of the commitment reached in Singapore, we have been designated by the State Department to lead the negotiations with the Korean People’s Army (KPA) and our issue is delinked from denuclearization. DPAA will continue communicating with KPA officials over the next few months to try to secure an agreement for operations in the DPRK in the spring of 2019. Recoveries in the DPRK were last conducted in 2005.
Korean-Cold War Annual Briefings
In August, DPAA hosted the annual Korea/Cold War Government Briefings in Arlington, VA, which was attended by a record 720 family members. Speaker highlights included updates from the DoD, State Department, and National Security Council officials who participated in the Singapore Summit; a briefing from Governor Richardson; an update from the South Korean Ministry of National Defense Agency for KIA (Killed in Action) Recovery
and Identification (MAKRI); a wreath laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown; and a
dinner hosted by the Republic of Korea Ministry of Veterans Affairs. At the meeting, we also
explained the Korean War Disinterment Project that was approved by DoD and will enable
the systematic, conditions-based disinterment of all 652 Unknowns at the National Memorial
Cemetery of the Pacific over the next five to seven years. Eight disinterments occurred this
past week, the first of the project.
National POW/MIA Recognition Day, September 21, 2018
This year’s National POW/MIA Recognition Day was observed by our Southeast Asia detachments
at the respective U.S. Embassy. Here at the Pentagon, Secretary Mattis hosted the ceremony, and his poignant speech emphasized the nation’s unrelenting commitment to this mission. It’s posted on our Facebook page, at https://www.facebook.com/dodpaa/videos/466684510507523. In Hawaii, a very moving ceremony was highlighted by U.S. Army MSG Charles McDaniel’s son, Charles, Jr., as the keynote speaker. He and his brother, Larry, then placed a rosette next to their father’s name on the
National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific marble Tablets of the Missing. It’s posted at:
For those who would like
this year’s National POW/MIA Recognition Day poster, they can be ordered online via our website,
The Last B24 - Tulsamerican Premier
Over the past year, PBS NOVA filmed a documentary, entitled The Last B-24. It will air November 7, 2018, at 9 pm EST on PBS, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/last-B-24.html. The film captures both the complex, behind-the-scenes efforts to recover missing crewmen from the Tulsamerican, a B-24 bomber that crashed off the coast of Croatia during World War II, by DPAA partners (The National WWII Museum, the University of New Orleans, and University of Innsbruck) and interviews with family members. The documentary also weaves the work and interviews of family members associated with a nearby B-17 loss and also includes the recovery
and identification of Captain Lawrence Everett Dickson, whose P-51 Mustang crashed in Austria
while on a combat mission.
Next month I will have the honor of speaking at Cambridge American Cemetery's Veterans Day
Ceremony. Last Veterans Day, I spoke at the American Cemetery in Luxemburg, and I can attest
first hand to the tremendous respect and honor DPAA’s allies and friends in Europe continue to
show towards those who fought in World War II (WWII). Later during that trip, I will meet with
senior government officials from Croatia, Hungary, and Austria to obtain additional cooperation
regarding accounting for missing WWII U.S. service members as DPAA continues to press for
increased operations in those countries.
Outreach and Communications Overview
VFW National Convention July 21-25, 2018
DPAA Director Mr. Kelly McKeague updated more than 10,000 members of the VFW on the
current status of DPAA and its worldwide missions. Johnie Webb also briefed the POW/MIA
Committee and DPAA manned a booth in the exhibition hall where veterans and their families
stopped by to learn about DPAA and the effort that goes into accounting for DoD personnel lost in
American Legion Convention
Representatives from DPAA attended the American Legion’s 100th National Convention in
Minneapolis, MN, during the week of 26 August where approximately 9,500 members were in
attendance. A briefing was presented to the National Security Committee that included POW/MIA representatives from each state. The floor was opened for questions, resulting in a good exchange of information. DPAA’s team also set up and manned a booth in the exhibition hall where veterans and their families stopped by to learn about DPAA and the effort that goes into accounting for DoD personnel lost in our past conflicts.
Family Member Updates (FMU)
DPAA hosted an FMU in Philadelphia, PA, on September 8, 2018. 324 family members were
briefed on the status of their unaccounted for loved ones, representing 129 losses. The next FMU
will be in Greensboro, NC, on November 17, 2018. The full FMU and Annual Meetings schedule
can be found at: http://www.dpaa.mil/Families/Family-Events/
DPAA sent a team to the Special Operations Association’s annual reunion earlier this month. DPAA staff briefed members and guests during the SOA/SFA POW/MIA forum on the current status of accounting efforts in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam; provided an update on potentially significant discoveries of long sought special operations after action reports; and discussed DPAA’s outreach and communications strategies. DPAA staff also interviewed Association members and gathered important information that will hopefully contribute to lead development.
Korean War Veterans Association (KWVA) Annual Meeting
DPAA’s Principal Deputy Direct (PDD), Ms. Fern Sumpter Winbush, briefed the annual Korean
War Veterans Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, from October 16-18, 2018. Ms. Winbush provided a
DPAA overview and Korea update briefing at the KWVA board and membership meetings, and our
lead analyst, Dan Baughman, supported the question and answer session and conducted veteran interviews.
75th Commemoration of the Battle of Tarawa
The American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) will host a ceremony on November 19,
2018, at 1 p.m. HST at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific, Honolulu. The ceremony
will commemorate the 75th Anniversary of the Battle of Tarawa and rededicate the memorial’s
Courts of the Missing, which recently underwent a two-year restoration project. Mr. McKeague
will attend this ceremony. The Deputy Director for Operations will also serve as the senior DPAA
official at a repatriation ceremony on Tarawa on the 75th anniversary of the Tarawa assault.
Key Media Engagements
Media Activity Highlights:
July 27, 2018 - Local/Regional/National/Global coverage of the DPRK’s unilateral turnover of 55
boxes of remains purported to be U.S. service members.
July 31, 2018 - BBC's International Radio
August 1, 2018 - Local/Regional/National/Global coverage of the honorable carry ceremony at Joint
Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam.
August 2, 2018 - Pentagon Press Corps - Director McKeague and Dr. Byrd (VTC)
August 8, 2018 - DPAA held a news conference (38 outlets attended) to kick off the agency's Korean War-Cold War Annual Government Briefings held in Arlington, VA.
August 14, 2018 - White House Press Corps - Director McKeague, Dr. Byrd and Dr. McMahon
Sept. 6, 2018 - Takeout Podcast with Major Garrett
Sept 20, 2018 - Defense Writers Group
September 20, 2018 - President Trump tweeted the news that DPAA had made the first two
identifications from the 55 boxes of remains.
September 21, 2018 - POW/MIA Recognition Day coverage
Sept. 21, 2018 - Federal News Radio's "Federal Drive" program
October 22, 2018 - Korean Broadcasting Service - Lab visit and interview with Director McKeague
Partnerships & Innovations (PI) Update
Field Operations 4th Qtr
Four (4) – IP
Seven (7) – EM
Description and number of arrangements implemented in 4th Qtr (14 total – new partners)
o Six (6) – Memorandum of Understanding (MOU).
o One (modification) – Grant/ Cooperative Agreement (CA) (agreement between USG and
a non-federal entity to cooperate to achieve a common end.).
o Two (2) – Partner Project Agreement (PPA) (the more specific, more detailed agreement
that follows the generic MOU).
o Five (5) – Contract.
In-Progress Q4 (7 total)
o Seven (7) – MOU.
Partnership Cost Avoidance
Final estimated cost avoidance for FY18 is $10.4M, realized through 22 executed field
In Development: 21
10 current research fellows include:
o Six (6) historians, 1 underwater archaeologist, 1 archivist, 2 family historians
o One additional historian vacancy and one additional archivist vacancy still open
In collaboration with DPAA’s lab, developing scientific research efforts with partner institutions (Isotopes)
Field Operations Overview
Deputy Director for Operations
I just returned from a very successful trip to multiple countries in our European-Mediterranean
Directorate’s theater of operation. In our continued effort to pursue international partnerships, I met
with senior government officials, military chiefs, and university directors in Malta, Italy, and the
Netherlands to obtain cooperation and support for current and future recovery operations.
Additionally, I met with senior officials from ABMC Sicily-Rome, one of our focal points for
WWII disinterments in the European-Mediterranean Theater. The trip concluded with successful engagements in Bahrain and Kuwait as we secured important support from the US Navy, US Army and Kuwaiti government as we begin the search for one of our five unaccounted-for service
members from the Persian Gulf War.
In September I traveled to Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam to participate in annual talks regarding
FY19 operations in support of our Vietnam War efforts. The talks in both Laos and Vietnam were
extremely successful. In Laos, we gained support for year-round Stony Beach investigations,
permission to conduct joint DPAA/partner organization recovery operations beginning in FY20, and Laos agreed in principle to increasing JFA size from 65 to 85 personnel starting in JFA 19-2LA (pending negotiations on details). In Vietnam, we gained support for four new initiatives: (1) increasing team size from 100-125, employment of 7-9 teams per JFA, longer JFAs on a case-by case basis to close sites, and conduct of minor excavation work during ITs; (2) permission to
augment DPAA teams with partner personnel in FY19; (3) increased development of partnerships
within Vietnam, including more training, to improve the capabilities of Vietnamese-led teams; and
(4) gained direct access to Vietnamese National Archives catalogues.
Next month, I will have the honor of being the guest speaker at the USS MISSOURI Memorial
Association Veterans Day Ceremony. I will also be speaking at the repatriation ceremony on
Tarawa on November 20th as we both commemorate the 75th anniversary of the start of the battle and start the journey home for several fallen Americans. At the end of November, I will lead the US delegation to commemorate the 30th Anniversary of sustained Joint Operations in Vietnam.
This ceremony will highlight the importance of the relationship forged between our two countries as
we continue to work together to account for the remaining missing American’s from the Vietnam
Visa Sanctions on Cambodia, Laos, and Burma
Two weeks ago, the Cambodian Prime Minister, without conditions, lifted his suspension of
cooperation on the U.S. POW/MIA mission. The suspension was imposed more than a year ago
after the U.S. Government (USG) imposed visa restrictions on Cambodia. DPAA plans to excavate
a loss site in January 2019. Over the summer, the USG imposed sanctions on Laos and Burma for
failure to accept its respective nationals who have been ordered removed from the United States.
These sanctions are graduated in nature and may impact future operations, though as of today,
DPAA has not seen retaliatory measures from either country. The first Joint Field Activity of the FY is underway in Laos, and I will be traveling to Cambodia in two weeks to meet with Senior Minister Pol Saroeun and Undersecretary of State Lapresse to work through the details of resuming both recovery and investigation operations starting in mid-January. Of note, Stony Beach and a DPAA
representative have been conducting investigations in Cambodia throughout the past year.
Lao Flooding Assistance
In response to a request from the Lao Government to the U.S. Ambassador to Laos, DPAA provided
excess supplies from Southeast Asia warehouses to assist in the relief efforts in Attepeu Province
where a dam collapse had caused widespread flooding. The Lao Government, and particularly their POW/MIA officials, expressed their appreciation for DPAA’s humanitarian efforts.
Republic of Korea (ROK) DPAA continues to work closely with our ROK partners. Last month, DPAA repatriated the remains of 64 Koreans to the ROK; these remains had been segregated over the years by DPAA scientists assigned to the DPAA Korean War Project. As part of an agreement reached earlier this month, the ROK Army and the Korean People’s Army (KPA) have begun demining in the DMZ to enable joint recovery operations next spring at Arrowhead Hill. In coordination with the DPRK, DPAA is prepared
to offer basic scientific support to ROK and DPRK recovery operations.
Europe-Mediterranean (EM) Region:
Operations in 4th Qtr: (July-Sept)
o Four (4) DPAA teams conducted investigations of multiple sites associated with missing air
o Germany (three (3) aircraft crash sites)
o United Kingdom (five (5) aircraft crash sites)
o Italy (five (5) aircraft crash sites)
o Romania (five (5) aircraft crash sites)
o Two partner investigations
o Alaska, survey of potential aircraft crash/sunken ship sites off Kiska Island (Project
o Italy, survey of potential aircraft underwater crash sites (Project Recover)
o Four (4) DPAA teams conducted excavations of three (3) aircraft crash sites and one
o Germany, A-26G with one missing crew member
o France, B-17F with two (2) missing crewmembers
o France, underwater, P-47D with one missing crew member (Note: Conducted with support
from the French Navy, who supplied the diving platform and some team personnel. The remains recovered from this site have already been identified as 2d Lt James Lord)
o Poland, isolated burial potentially associated with a B-17G with seven (7) missing crew
o Four (4) partner recoveries of aircraft crash sites
o Germany, B-17 with seven (7) missing crew members (Archaeological and Historical
o France, P-47D with one missing pilot (St. Mary’s University)
o France, P-47D with one missing pilot (University of Wisconsin)
o Malta, Underwater, B-24 with one missing crew member (University of Malta) (NOTE:
began as an investigation but shifted to a recovery)
Operations next 60 days: (Oct-Nov)
o Italy, DPAA investigation of several underwater crash sites
o Germany, Currently conducting one partner excavation of a B-17G with four (4) missing
crew members (Cranfield University)
o Italy, November excavation of a P-38G with one missing crew member
o Exhumed 16 Unknowns in 4th Qtr from American Battle Monuments Commission
cemeteries in Europe
o One more exhumation planned before the end of the calendar year
U.S. – Russia Joint Commission (USRJC) Update
o August, DPAA welcomed Rich Lyda as the Chief of the Joint Commission Support
o September, Doc Foglesong, the U.S. Side Chairman traveled with Dr. Connell, Acting
Executive Secretary for the U.S. side, to Moscow for meetings with Col-Gen Vostrotin,
the Russian Side Chairman as well as U.S. Embassy staff in Moscow
o Plans are being finalized for the 22nd USRJC Plenum to be held in Washington, DC in
November. Gen Foglesong has agreed to double the number of family and veterans
group representatives to serve as observers to the Plenum to a total number of four.
Indo-Pacific (IP) Region:
Operations in 4th Qtr: (July-Sept)
o Solomon Islands (18-1), 2 RTs, 1 IT
o Papua New Guinea (18-2), 1 IT, 1 Partner IT (University of Queensland)
o Vietnam (18-4), 1x Vietnamese RT, 1x Unilateral Excavation; 1x Underwater IT, 2x
Research and Investigation Teams
o Laos (18-5), 3x RT
Operations next 60 days: (Oct-Nov)
o Tarawa (18-1) via History Flight
o Vietnam (19-1), 2x RT, 1x Vietnamese RT, 1x Unilateral Excavation, 1x Underwater IT,
1x Research and investigation Team, Initial Partner Incorporation (University of Illinois8
o Laos (19-1) 3x RT, 1x IT, UXO Mitigation Planning
o Punchbowl Cemetery (Hawaii): 26 disinterments (12 - Korea, 14 - WWII)
FY 2018 Identifications/ Statistics
o Total = 203 accounted for personnel
• WWII = 156
• Korean War = 37
• Cold War = 0
• Vietnam War = 10
o The lab had 459 total accessions in FY18
• 71 accessions from field operations
• 126 accessions from unilateral turnovers
• 239 accessions from disinterments
• 18 accessions from partners/contractors
• 5 accessions from other sources
Laboratory staff size has grown to 124, counting military, GS, and contractors and including
two more underwater archeologists for a total of four now. The Lab also received additional
funding for the Korean War Project and we now have ten scientists working the project. The
lab continues to innovate new methods of data analysis to cope with the massive projects
undergoing analysis and to ramp up stable isotope testing as a new test modality. We have
overhauled our information management system and are working a data integration project with
Armed Forces Medical Examiner System – Armed Forces DNA Identification
FY 2018 Stats
o 3,000 Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA Analyses reported to DPAA
o 189 First-time named BTB reports (DNA reports supporting new
o 530 Addendum reports (additional portions)
o Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) work flow for chemically treated or
highly degraded samples; the process has been online for two years
o Double throughput last 6 months; 45 samples/month
o Optimized existing workflow to double sample output: 12 samples/run
o Bought 3 new higher through-put instruments: 15-45 samples/run
o Still only Forensic lab in the world with this capability.
To meet DPAA scope and pace, submitted Unfunded Request (UFR) for 36 new scientists was
denied. Using existing budget due to optimizations, hired 12 out of the 36 new scientists in Sept 2018.
Questions and Answers:
American Legion, Freddy Gessner: Thank you for hosting the call. No questions.
Korean War Veterans Association (KWVA) Rocky Harder:
1). In FY18, how many possible American remains were recovered from South Korea and
how many have been identified?
Answer: Dr. Byrd: We received one unilateral turnover from MAKRI, but have not yet
identified the remains. There is another set of remains that I will review next week in Seoul
that we expect to send to the lab and identify in the not too distant future.
2.) Are there any Korean War Ops scheduled in China for FY19?
Answer: RDML Kreitz: There is a WWII loss being investigated but no Korean War losses.
3). Where do we stand with talking to North Korea about the resumption of joint
Answer: Mr. McKeague: We have been passing messages to the KPA. Currently, the Interagency
is working through the details of the DoD counter proposal to the plan the KPA passed to us. The
issue is to avoid violating the sanctions that are in place. State and Treasury are helping us work
through this. Once approved, we will pass the counter-proposal to the KPA and look to schedule
Special Operations Association/Special Forces Association Mike Taylor: At our reunion
three members of DPAA received the President’s Award. Jack Kull, Southeast Asia Policy
Officer, Matt Kristoff, Vietnam Way analyst, and Steve Thompson, Outreach &
Communications. They have provided exemplary service over the years. This is the highest
given and has only been presented seven times. Previous recipients were JPAC, Ann Mills
Griffiths, Major General Kelly McKeague, and Stony Beach.
Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), John Towles: No questions. Thank you for your efforts
and let us know how we can help you in your efforts.
Vietnam Veterans of America (VVA), Grant Coates:
1). Can you please explain the ancestral DNA issue you referred to earlier?
Answer Dr. McMahon: The technology is similar to commercial products such as Ancestry DNA and 23 and Me but works on the degraded remains with which we work. Basically it means that any relative within 4 generations of the missing person will be a suitable DNA family reference. This will be very helpful in making IDs.
Honor Release Return Moe Moyer: No questions.
Korea Cold War Families of the Missing, Sherra Basham: No questions. Thank you for
what is being done regarding the nuclear DNA testing improvements.
National League of Families, Ann Mills Griffiths:
1). You seem to have mixed messages regarding linkage of recovery operations in North
Korea to denuclearization. Are they linked or not?
Answer Mr. McKeague: Secretary Pompeo has indicated that the two issues are not
linked. The Secretary’s Special Envoy to North Korea has said he is not bringing it up in his
discussions. The delays we were referring to are due to the requirement to avoid violating
the sanctions that are in place as we reimburse North Korea for recovery work and provide
vehicles and fuel for recovery operations. State and Treasury are helping us to get this
2). You mentioned that the Korean War Disinterment Project will has seven phases that will
take five to seven years to accomplish. Can this be collapsed into fewer years so that aging
family members can get answers sooner?
Answer RDML Kreitz: We wish we could but many things prevent that. First we have a
cemetery cap we must live with—we cannot disinter all of the unknowns at once as this would harmthe cemetery. We also have a State of Hawaii permitting process. We have recently persuaded them to raise the limit on permits. We will stay with our five (5) to seven (7) year estimate but will do so faster if conditions allow.
Korean War POW/MIA Network, John Zimmerlee:
1). It seems as though the discussion today is all about bones. In light of the Moore lawsuit, what can you tell us about what you are doing to investigate the cases of live POWs?
Answer (provided after the call): Since its inception in 1992, the US-Russia Joint Commission on POW/MIAs has aggressively sought out reports of Americans who were possibly transferred to the former Soviet Union, and has pursued all leads. In its role to provide analytical and logistical support to the USRJC, DoD has maintained a staff of
researchers in Moscow and Washington, D.C. for the past 25 years. Our researchers have traveled the length and breadth of the former Soviet Union, and interviewed thousands of veterans and alleged witnesses. The transfer issue was a central theme during every one of the interviews and continues to be in our efforts to determine the fate of our missing. A primary focus of our archival research has been to identify information related to the transfer issue. Even during the long hiatus of USRJC activity between 2005 and 2016, DoD
continued to pursue all leads related to the transfer issue.
Considerable resources have also been expended to review inmate records at dozens of
psychiatric hospitals, special prisons for foreigners, and former Gulag camp sites throughout the former Soviet Union. DoD investigators conducted numerous expeditions to examine crash sites which allegedly involved U.S. personnel. Throughout the years, there have been
many media campaigns requesting persons to come forward with any information on Americans, both military and civilian, who may have been within the territory of the former Soviet Union. The Vietnam War missing list was checked in its entirety in both Russia and Kazakhstan. To date, DoD and the USRJC have not been able to substantiate a single report of Americans having been transferred to the Soviet Union. Despite herculean efforts to thoroughly investigate every report made by various individuals, evidence to verify the reports remains elusive.
Since the reinvigoration of the USRJC in 2016, the transfer issue has been raised with the Russian Side at every meeting, and is scheduled once again to be discussed at the 22nd Plenum on November 28. One of the important issues to be discussed with Vasily Khristoforov, former head of the Federal Security Service archives (old KGB archives), at the Plenum is how to gain access to the relevant information in security service archives.
In short, DoD and the USRJC will continue to pursue possible leads and continue to champion requests for further archival research in still-classified Russian records and to conduct interviews with regard to all credible investigative leads about the possible transfer of Americans to the former Soviet Union.
Frank Metersky, Korean War accounting advocate:
1). Are the K-55 remains individual or comingled?
Answer Dr. Byrd: We made the first two identifications from remains that were not highly
comingled. However, most of the remains are comingled. Our next opportunity to make
identifications should come in the next few months as all of the bone samples have been cut and
submitted to AFMES-AFDIL and the results are starting to come in.
2). Do you have an estimate of the number of individuals represented in the K-55?
Answer Dr. Byrd: More than 55 however, we need to wait until the first round of DNA testing to
make an estimate. Slightly more than 500 samples were submitted, and we need the results before
estimating the number of individuals represented.
3). Who is doing the negotiations for DPAA?
Answer, Mr. McKeague: When negotiations take place it will be myself and RDML Kreitz.
Representatives from the State Department and the United Nations Command will be present as
4). Do you have any indications of North Korean cooperation?
Answer, Mr. McKeague: Yes, I believe the North Koreans are interested in the resumption of
joint recovery operations with the U.S. They have been cooperating with the Republic of Korea on
demining in the DMZ that will lead to joint recovery operations between the two Koreas.
5). Do you know what area the K-55 remains came from? Any Marine loss areas?
Answer, Dr. Byrd: The information provided was similar to that in the K-208 turnovers. Usually
a village or place name or a battle or POW camp was given. There are no locations from the West
side of the Chosin Reservoir where the Marines fought.